The Internet is recognized as a driver for social, cultural, and economic growth for all countries. Yet, many gaps exist in basic connectivity, but also in digital skills, and in applications that can make a difference to the ‘under connected’ and the ‘yet to be connected’ users of the United States, and users from all parts of the world. The UN Agenda for Sustainable Development identifies ICTs and the Internet as horizontal enablers for development. Several of the SDGs recognize the importance of connectivity, specifically, paragraph 9-c. sets an important goal for the international community: “Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020”. However, the uniqueness about the UN SDGs is that they are recognized as impacting developed as well as developing countries. Given ICTs and the Internet are so important to economic growth and development, the IGF2016 has established a focus on continued work on Connecting the Next Billions. Earlier in 2016, the US State Department and the World Bank, in conjunction with IEEE, established a call to action for global support for bringing 1.5 billion more users online by 2020. While many policy initiatives exist in the communications sector, the benefit to the under and unconnected comes from when applications exist that are meaningful to users, beyond today’s applications and moving into delivering healthcare, education, and access to other generally useful information about daily life that makes going online relevant, and meaningful.. Recent submissions from the National and Regional IGFs into the IGF public comments regarding Connecting the Next Billions: Phase II have prioritized moving beyond mere access to digital literacy/key useful applications that users can benefit from.
Director, Internet, Science and Technology - Pew Research Center
Lee Rainie is the director of internet, science and technology research at Pew Research Center. Under his leadership, the Center has issued more than 500 reports based on its surveys that examine people’s online activities and the internet’s role in their lives. He also directs the Center’s new initiative on the intersection of science and society. The American Sociological Association gave Rainie its award for “excellence in the reporting on social issues” in 2014 and described his work as the “most authoritative source of reliable data on the use and impact of the internet and mobile connectivity.”
Prior to launching Pew Research Center’s technology research, Rainie was managing editor of U.S. News & World Report. He is a graduate of Harvard University and has a master’s degree in political science from Long Island University.
This session will be a dialogue between US government senior official and a leader in the tech community regarding the challenges faced to address connecting the next billions, including key challenges for the most under connected. It sets the stage for the next phase of the session.
Under Secretary of State, US GovernmentCatherine A. Novelli was sworn in as Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment on February 18, 2014. In this capacity, she leads the State Department’s efforts to develop and implement economic growth, energy, oceans, environmental, and science and technology policies to promote economic prosperity and address global challenges in a transparent, rules-based, and sustainable system. She is also the State Department’s Senior Coordinator for International Information Technology Diplomacy. Prior to assuming her current duties, she was Vice President, Worldwide Government Affairs at Apple, Inc. In that role, Ms. Novelli headed a multinational international team responsible for Apple’s federal, international, and state and local government relations and public policy. Formerly Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Europe & the Mediterranean, Ms. Novelli coordinated U.S. trade and investment policy for the over 65 countries of Western Europe, Central Europe, Russia, the NIS, the Middle East and Northern Africa. She has taken a leading role in many of the most important U.S. trade negotiations in Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and North Africa. As the point person for the $1 trillion economic relationship between the United States and Europe, Ms. Novelli led efforts to ensure access to the European market for U.S. manufactured and agricultural products. Ms. Novelli was the lead strategist in creating the United States’ free trade agenda with the Middle East. She led free trade agreement negotiations with Jordan, Morocco and Bahrain, Oman and United Arab Emirates. She chaired the Trade and Investment Framework Councils with a number of countries in the region, including Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Algeria. As the Deputy Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, she negotiated most of the bilateral trade and investment agreements that underpin our economic relationship in that region. Ms. Novelli is a graduate of Tufts University, holds a law degree from the University of Michigan and a Master of Laws from University of London (with concentrations in international and comparative law at the London School of Economics and School of Oriental and Asian Studies).
Full Professor of Telecommunications Engineering at the University of Roma “Tor Vergata”Marina Ruggieri is the Vice President Elect of IEEE Technical Activities. She is also a Full Professor of Telecommunications Engineering at the University of Roma “Tor Vergata” and therein member of the Board of Directors. Marina is co-founder and Chair of the Steering Board of the interdisciplinary Center for Teleinfrastructures (CTIF) at the University of Roma “Tor Vergata”. The Center, that belongs to the CTIF global network, with nodes in USA, Europe and Asia, focuses on the use of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for vertical applications (health, energy, cultural heritage, economics, law) by integrating terrestrial, air and space communications, computing, positioning and sensing. She is Principal Investigator of the 40/50 GHz TPD#5 Communications Experiment on board the European Alphasat satellite (launched on July 2013). Marina She also serves a Vice President of the Roma Chapter of AFCEA; proboviro of the Italian Industries Federation for Aerospace, Defense and Security (AIAD); member of the Technical-Scientific Committee of the Center for Aeronautical Military Studies.
Senior Director, Technology, Policy and International Affairs, IEEEKaren McCabe is a Senior Director of Technology Policy and International Affairs at IEEE, where she leads efforts to build and connect communities working in the technology policy ecosystem and where her focus is on the development and promotion of collaborative strategies that produce impactful outcomes among mulit-stakeholders to help advance technology for society and humanity benefit. Karen has over 20 years experience working at the nexus of mission-driven organizations, industry, NGO and government bodies to raise awareness, to educate and build capacity among stakeholders in the technology sphere. Through her career, Karen has focused on projects and initiatives to expand global footprint, build communities, develop and execute integrated communications and global outreach programs and build and nurture relationships. During the last 20 years, Karen has held various leadership and senior management positions in the technology sector, with a specific focus in the global standards and technology development domain that is rooted in openness, transparency and inclusiveness. Today, Karen in engaged in efforts in Internet governance, ethics and technology and global standards in trade and policy. She leads the organization’s engagement with the UN (SDGs, WSIS, etc.) and other international bodies with a focus on engagement of technical community and a focus on the intersection of policy and technology in ICTs. Karen is a member of the OECD Internet Technical Advisory, the Internet Society and works with an array of organizations and bodies to connect technologists, industry leaders and policy makers
This segment of the session will include lightening talks [4 minutes each] to advance thinking and contribute to the submission from the IGF-USA2016 to the Internet Governance Forum 2016 Connecting the Next Billions: Phase II.
Vice President for Mobile and Global Access Policy, FacebookKevin Martin is the Vice-President for Mobile and Global Access Policy at Facebook where he oversees, among others, Facebook's connectivity programs and communication regulatory issues. Previously, he served as Chairman (2005-2009) and Commissioner (2001-2005) of the Federal Communications Commission. During his tenure, the FCC adopted a non-binding policy statement on net neutrality which led to the 2010 Open Internet Order. After leaving the FCC he joined the Aspen Institute as a Senior Fellow at the think tank's Communications and Society Program, and later the law firm Squire Patton Boggs LLP as a Partner. He holds a B.A. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, an M.P.P. from Duke University, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School.
Legal & Policy Fellow, MicrosoftNamema Amendi is a Legal & Policy Fellow in Microsoft’s U.S. Government Affairs Policy team and a member of the company’s Affordable Access Initiatives team. The AAI team works with governments, research institutions, companies, and NGOs around the world to foster new wireless technologies and business models that will reduce the cost of wireless bandwidth and enable billions of people to get online more easily. The team has established wireless broadband projects in places as varied as the rural heart of Kenya and the urban complexity of Singapore. The team also has projects in countries including the U.S., Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Ghana, and India. Prior to joining Microsoft Namema completed fellowships with Columbia University’s Center on Sustainable Investment and Ciel Partners LLP, a New York-based venture incubator. He also worked as a consultant with Fanisi Capital, a Private Equity Firm with investments in five African countries. He received his bachelor's degree in Biology from Columbia University and his law degree from Columbia Law School where was an editor of the Columbia Science & Technology Law Review.
Vice President, International PolicyCarolina Rossini is the Vice President for International Rights and Strategy at Public Knowledge and a 2016 World Economic Forum Young Global Leader. Alongside her work at Public Knowledge, she is a Global Partners Digital International Associate and an X-Lab fellow. She sits on several advisory boards, including at Open Knowledge Foundation, CodingRights, Instituto Educadigital, and InternetLab. Previously, Carolina was a Project Director at New America Foundation’s Open Technology Institute, the International Intellectual Property Director at Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), and a Fellow at the Berkman Center at Harvard University. Back in Brazil, she was a in-house council for Terra Networks S/A, part of Telefonica Economic Group, and a law lecturer and project coordinator at the Center for Technology and Society and Fundação Getulio Vargas. Carolina has an LLM in Intellectual Property from Boston University, a MBA from Instituto de Empresas, a MA in International Economic Negotiations from UNICAMP/UNESP, and a JD from University of Sao Paulo – USP.
GBI Chief of Party, NethopeJonathan serves as NetHope’s GBI Chief of Party, providing strategic leadership, guidance and oversight to all aspects of the joint program with USAID. Prior to joining NetHope, Jonathan served as Vice President of the Information Technology Applications Center at FHI 360 (formerly AED) where his projects included wiring schools in Macedonia, supporting ICTs across sub-Saharan Africa and connecting rural communities in Peru. Jonathan has been responsible for a variety of high-level projects: a regional ICT development program for USAID Asia and Near East Bureau; and USAID’s Africa Bureau’s Leland Initiative which focused on introducing the Internet in twenty-three sub-Saharan countries. Jonathan was also a founding member of the SatelLife HealthNet Program, the world’s first multiple low-earth orbiting satellite email service.
Senior Advisor, U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs CommitteeNilmini Gunaratne Rubin advises the U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee on global public policy issues ranging from trade and international finance to energy and technology. On behalf of Chairman Royce, she wrote the Digital GAP Act to promote internet access in developing countries. She also drafted the Electrify Africa Act to catalyze investment in power in Africa - a bill lauded in the Washington Post as "market-oriented development policy." Previously, Nilmini advocated on technology policy for the Information Technology Industry Council where she successfully influenced cybersecurity legislation. Nilmini served as a senior aide for the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee where she built bipartisan coalitions in the Senate and House of Representatives as well as with investors, businesses and civil society to secure passage of groundbreaking transparency law that will allow citizens to track trillions of dollars paid by oil companies to governments, a law providing much needed debt relief for Haiti, and law requiring reform by the development banks. She secured governance reforms and contributions for the poorest countries as part of a $100 billion loan from the United States to the International Monetary Fund. Earlier, Nilmini worked at the White House’s National Security Council as the Director for International Finance and the G-8. She helped lead international negotiations on trade, economic development, debt relief, HIV/AIDS, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, and Africa for the 2003 G-8 Summit in Evian, France. She also served at the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Nilmini was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in 2006 and a “40 under 40” in international development by Devex in 2010. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Senior U.S. State Department officialManu is a senior U.S. State Department official with responsibility over international economic and trade policy, including matters relating to Internet, technology and communications policy. As a senior political advisor, Manu reports to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth. At the State Department, Manu has reported directly to three U.S. Ambassadors, including as Chief of Staff. Over the past fifteen years, Manu has worked in all three branches of the federal government and in two private practice law firms. Manu served as a senior political advisor in the U.S. Department of Commerce, where he handled domestic technology policy. Manu was also an attorney at Willkie Farr & Gallagher in Washington, D.C., and at Butler Rubin Saltarelli & Boyd in Chicago, Illinois. In addition, Manu has served as a staff member at the White House Counsel’s Office to the Honorable William J. Clinton, a legislative assistant at the U.S. Senate’s Judiciary Committee to the Honorable Patrick J. Leahy, staff member to the Honorable Edward M. Kennedy of the United States Senate, and judicial law clerk to a U.S. federal judge. Manu graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from Northwestern University and a Juris Doctor from Michigan Law School.
Lee Rainie (digital divide (DD) in the US) • Pew doesn’t have a policy position but rather facts and numbers for others to analyze. • Previously, the problem was who gets access and who doesn’t now DD includes more. • Factors of DD: o Household income (the poorer the less likely to use the Internet) ♣ People have more access now (2000 vs. 2015) ♣ Broadband (BB) plateaued in recent years. ♣ Global connectivity has grown. ♣ The richer people get the more Internet connectors/access devices they have. ♣ Smartphone adoption is bigger than BB adoption. o Educational attainment (the higher education is the more likely to use the Internet) ♣ College (and higher degree) more likely to be smartphone users. o Race and ethnicity. ♣ African Americans used to be less likely to use the Internet but now it’s not the case. ♣ Survey: are you an Internet user? White – 89%, black -81%, Hispanic – 81%. ♣ Home BB: less for black and Hispanic but not the case for mobile connectors. o Age (the younger the more likely to use the Internet, especially through smartphones) o Community type ♣ The gap narrowed between rural and urban. ♣ Mobile/BB/smartphone connection less likely to be used in rural areas. ♣ People with disabilities are less likely to use the Internet. ♣ Spanish-speakers are less likely to use the Internet. • Changes in connectivity o Shift towards smartphone connectivity. ♣ 7% are totally “smartphone dependent” of total adult population ♣ 13% – don’t even have BB o Why else do people don’t use BB? ♣ 21% – just not interested ♣ 13% – don’t have a computer ♣ 10% – too difficult/frustrating ♣ summary results: • 34% – relevance reasons (not interested, waste of time, too busy) • 32% – usability (too difficult/old, don’t know how) • 19% – price (too expensive or no computer) • 7% – lack of available access. o Newer reasons for not using BB: ♣ Over 30% – cost ♣ ?% – assistance needed o Privacy and trust concerns post-Snowden ♣ 30% took at least one step to hide/shield their information from the government. ♣ 22% – changed the patterns of their use of technical platforms. ♣ Most don’t know what Tor, PGP, do-not-track browsers are. o Still issues with digital skills and readiness. o Evolution continues. Cathy Novelli and Marina Ruggieri (How to connect the next billion?) Cathy • Global Connect Initiative (GCI): o Goal – connect another 1.5 billion by 2020 o Joint project of the USG and WB • WB report shows that 10% increase in connectivity = 1-2% increase in GDP. • New approach to the Internet: we should view it now as traditional infrastructure (roads). • Financing the project is a major component but it’s not enough, digital readiness is also important. • Various types of partnerships and cooperations are essential for success of GCI: connectivity and entrepreneurs, governments and international organizations. • IGF helps IGC because this forum puts together the brainpower, outlines the major topics, and connects various layers of Internet government. • Why GCI appeared now? Because it was finally proved (there is hard data) the positive outcome of connectivity: if you are not connected, you are totally left behind. Marina • GCI consists of four crucial components: technical, policy, educational, ethical. • IEEE is interested in GCI because increased connectivity is one of the goals of IEEE and connectivity keeps world sustainable. Also, IEEE has its own initiatives (Internet, brain) that depend on the level of connectivity. • Cooperation is necessary between tech and non-tech communities, members and non-members of IEEE. • Engineers and scientists should care about connectivity because connectivity on its own is not enough, it should allow useful participation. • We can’t stop evolution of the Internet so we have to predict problems and solve them now. • Connectivity between digitalized and non-digitalized sectors is important. • The most significant technological challenges are architecture and softarization network should be flexible; and compatibility and comprehensibility (in the future – distance reduction between a device and a user). Q&A • Data cap is a huge constraint (experience is different for users). • Private sector should be involved in seeking solutions.